Soap making has come a long way since your grandmother’s day. Ingredients that would have been exotic and unheard of in her day, you can pick up at your local Walmart. I am always looking for an outlet for creativity and I love trying out new projects – plus in the end you get something useful that your family will use everyday, you can give away as gifts or even sell.
The process isn’t hard, but until you get the hang of the way things work it’s definitely a good idea to follow instructions EXACTLY. Once you feel more comfortable you can start experimenting with different oils, additives, colors & fragrances. The possibilities are endless! There are several techniques of soap making out there. The one we will discuss today is cold process soap making.
All about Lye
Most of the ingredients you are going to be using are all natural and perfectly safe, but there is one big exception. When making soap you need to use sodium hydroxide, commonly known as lye. Lye has many uses including as a commercial cleaning agent, drain cleaner, and chemical peeling of fruits & vegetables. In cold process soap it causes a chemical reaction called saponification. Think back to your days in school. In science class we learned that when you mix an acid (fats & oils) & a base (lye) it will cause a chemical reaction. You have to measure accurately to get the proper reaction. Our goal is to add just enough lye to cause saponification, but not too much that lye is leftover in your finished soap. Properly done, each sodium hydroxide molecule will combine with an oil molecule, transforming it so it is no longer oil or lye, but a new molecule – soap. Most soap recipes will have you add more oil molecules than needed, a process called superfatting, which will leave the leftover oil molecules to clean & moisture your skin.
I know, I know, confusing and luckily not really necessary to know to make soap – basically lye turns fats & oils into soap like magic! The only thing you need to take away is this is SCIENCE not COOKING. You need to measure very carefully, and you need to take appropriate safety precautions. Lye is extremely caustic. It will chemically burn your skin. If you inhale it, it will chemically burn your lungs. If some splashes in your eyes, it will burn your retina. If some lye or soap batter should get on your skin, immediatley flush the area for several mintues with water. This stuff is no joke. Wait until your kids are in bed and your pets have settled down so no one is running around while you are working. Tie up your hair, wear long gloves, a face mask & safety goggles. Do not use your soap making bowls, utensils, etc for food (once you use them for soap, they need to be marked & stored away from your normal food prep supplies). Get a special container with a secure lid to store your lye. Mine is in a gallon ziplock bag inside a stainless steel container. I keep it on top of my soap cabinet, well out of kid’s and pet’s reach. I know someone who keeps hers in a gun safe to keep it away from her little ones! Lye can be tricky to find in stores, it really is just easiest to order it online. I buy mine here
Equipment you need to get started
You will need to gather up some equipment before you can get started. Try searching thrift stores or yard sales to see if you can find some of this second hand to keep costs down. As I mentioned before, none of your soap making supplies should ever be used for food prep to avoid contamination. Mark them and keep them outside of your kitchen so other family members won’t use them by mistake. At the end of this post, you will find some handy shopping links!
*several heat resistant bowls
*spoons & rubber spatula
*digital kitchen scale
*long rubber gloves
*face mask (preferably one rated for chemicals)
*something to cut your soap
*soap mold (you can purchase premade soap molds, or use a silicone baking mold)
*something to insulate soap (I made a simple box out of scrap wood)
Ingredients for making soap
Really the sky is the limit here! You can go fancy and use oils like Meadowfoam and Apricot Kernel, body butters and more. You can also use basic oils you can grab at the grocery store like olive oil, canola oil or sunflower oil. An excellent website for soap makers is Brambleberry.com , they have every kind of oil, butters, fragrances, and molds you could want. They also have a blog with amazing soap recipes to try (using their products of course!).
You will want to familiarize yourself with a Soap Calculator. I like the one here. It’s a great way to see the properties different kinds of oils will add to your soap, it will also give the exact amount of lye, oils, and fragrance to add. I run every single recipe I try through here, even if the recipe gives specific measurements, just to double check the work. It’s also handy for when you want to substitute an oil in a recipe for one you have on hand. A new oil could cause the lye measurement to be different so it is important to run any changes through the calculator.
Basic Soap Recipe:
34% Olive Oil
33% Coconut Oil
33% Palm Kernel Oil
These three oils are some of the most commonly used in soap making. Olive Oil is very moisturizing, Coconut Oil is cleansing, and Palm Kernel is great for lather. After your first batch, you can try adding more oils (sometimes 7-8 oils!) each one adding something special to the mix. But let’s start small and simple.
To fill my 10 inch silicone mold, I have found that I need 25 oz of oils. So in the soap calculator, in box two, I change the weight of oils to 25 ounces. All the other settings will default to standard amounts. Again, with experience, you can play around with changing them but for now, let’s just leave them there. Select the three oils and add the percentages. Hit “calculate recipe”, then “view/print” and you are ready to go! For this recipe, we see we will need:
8.5 oz Olive Oil
8.25 oz Coconut Oil
8.25 oz Palm Kernel Oil
9.5 oz water (use room temperature distilled water)
3.91 oz lye
fragrance or essential oils for scent (optional)
clay, micas, infusions, oxide powder or other colorant (optional)
Let’s Get Started!
First, clean the kitchen! You will need plenty of clear counter space, and an empty sink (no dirty dishes!)
Measure your distilled water, pour into bowl. Put on your gloves, goggles & mask. Measure your lye. Slowly pour the lye into the water (never pour the water into the lye as it can splash up).
Stir the lye water until lye is completely dissolved. DO NOT LEAN OVER BOWL. Try to keep your face as far back as possible and keep your mask on because as it dissolves the lye will be giving off fumes that you do not want to inhale. It will start off foggy, but will be clear when dissolved
Once the lye mixes with the water, it will heat up very rapidly. Depending on how much water/size of bowl it can easily reach over 200 degrees within seconds. Set aside and allow to cool.
While the lye water is cooling we will work on our oils. Measure each of the oils and add to a large bowl. I take my gloves, goggles & mask off for this part, they are bulky to wear and the oils aren’t going to hurt you.
Put the bowl in the microwave for 30 seconds. Stir well. Put in for another 30 seconds. Alternately, you could put the oils into a double boiler on the stovetop to melt. Continue this until oils are completely melted together. They should be nice and clear
Now we need to wait for the oils to also cool. The goal is to get both the lye water and the oils to be between 115-125 degrees (unless you are doing something fancy like salt bars, adding a food with sugar like milk or honey, using an accelerating fragrance oil…..but we are getting ahead of ourselves!). It is not the end of the world if they cool off too much. In fact plenty of soapers prefer to use room temperature oils & lye water. The more important thing is to try and keep the temperature of the oil and temperature of lye water within 10 degrees of each other.
While we are waiting for everything to cool, it is time to measure out any additives to your soap. You can add essential oils, fragrance oils, minerals for color, clays, purees….there are so many options! I am going to add some avocado puree and some dissolved sea clay (1/2 tsp sea clay mixed with 1 tsp olive oil). I am also adding some lavender & rosemary essential oils for fragrance. Don’t add them yet, just get them ready & measured. The amount of fragrance or essential oils you will add depend on the safe usage amount for that product. Fragrance oils should have the usage marked on the bottle or on the manufacturer’s website. Essential oils can be a little trickier, but this is a good guide that I use – click here for essential oils guide
Once your oils & lye water are the proper temperature, it’s time to put your gloves, goggles & mask back on. Carefully & slowly, pour your lye water into your oils. Try to avoid splashing. Tap your stick blender against the bottom of the bowl a couple times to release any air bubbles, then thoroughly blend, being careful as you move your stick blender around that you do not splash any of the mixture around.
After you have blended for a few minutes, you will notice the mixture begins to thicken. This is known as trace. If you lift the blender out, the mixture that dribbles off should leave a light trace before sinking in. It will be the consistency of slightly liquidity pudding.
Now is the time to add your fragrance or any additives. Add it in and quickly blend or hand stir. The chemical reaction is going to start to accelerate and it can begin to harden quickly. Some fragrances and additives can make it go even quicker, so don’t over blend.
Carefully pour the mixture into your soap mold
Tap the mold against your counter a few times to loosen any air bubbles that might be trapped.
Cover your mold and wrap it snugly in a towel. You want to keep the warmth inside to help your soap reach the gel phase where the saponification process speeds up and helps make a nice hard bar. If you don’t insulate, your soap may not reach gel phase, or not reach it long enough. It can leave discolorations that are not harmful, but don’t look very nice. Some recipes, particularly ones that contain special ingredients like honey or sugars, should not be insulated and can even be left in the refrigerator. The natural sugars in the these recipes can cause the batter to overheat to the point where it could volcano out of the mold! But for this recipe today, we will insulate.
Now it’s time to clean up your soap making tools. Keep your gloves & goggles on for this so the soap batter doesn’t get splashed on you. If you have any unused batter, scrap as much as you can into the trash so it doesn’t sit in your drains. Put all the bowls, spoons and tools in the sink. Using hot water and a little dish soap wash everything. I use paper towels so I can just toss them at the end, but you could also use an old dishrag set aside for soap cleanup. Let the hot water run in your sink for a bit to flush the batter from your pipes. Finally, wipe all your work surfaces (counters, sink) with diluted white vinegar. Lye is an extreme base and vinegar is an extreme acid so it can work to neutralize the lye on hard surfaces. DO NOT put vinegar on your skin if you have splashed lye on it, it will make the burn worse!
And now we wait….
I know it’s tempting, but let your soap sit for at least 24 hours wrapped up. When you check on it, you disrupt the temperature. I peeked at mine so you can see it – this is after about 12 hours
You can see the soap mixture is nice and dark and has a clear glycerin look – this is the gel phase. You can see the tiny air bubbles that came to the surface when I tapped the mold on the counter. They will go away by the end of the process.
After 24 hours you are ready to unmold! See that discoloration on the left side – and a bit along the top. This is why we don’t peek at sleeping soap! Loosen your mold along all four sides, being careful not to nick with your nail like I did! The soap will still be slightly soft.
Flip the mold upside down and gently run your hand along the bottom to completely loosen the soap from the mold
Now you just have to cut it into bars. You want to try and keep them evenly sized. On the back side of my soap mold lid, I drew a handy little cutting guide. You could also use a miter box or slab cheese cutter for super straight edges & even bars.
This time, I used a metal dough scraper to cut my soap brick.
The soap is not dangerous to handle with your bare hands. After the 24 hours is up saponification is complete and there should be no lingering lye left in your soap. BUT it is not ready to be used yet. If you used it now, it will pretty much dissolve into a gooey mess. The soap needs to harden for 4-6 weeks. I just put it on an old baking sheet lined with parchment paper and put it on a shelf. Let it stand on one of the narrower edges. The more of the bar that is exposed to the air, the faster it will harden. Mark the date somewhere so you will remember when it’s ready to go.
That’s it! I know it sounds like a lot, but once you make a batch or two you will totally have the hang of it and you will be ready to try more and more complicated recipes, or come up with some amazing ones of your own!